Cultural History of Mass Communications

Oral or preliterate cultures are those without a written language, some existing thousands of years ago and some still functioning today. More than 5,000 years ago, alphabets were developed independently in several places around the world.  The initial complexity with picture based alphabets, requiring a huge number of symbols to convey even the simplest idea, meant that only a very select few, the intellectual elite, could read or write.  Culture slowly expanded, using symbols to represent sounds rather than objects or ideas around 1800 B.C. with the Sumerians.   The syllable alphabet slowly developed, and then flowered in Greece around 800 B.C.  For orders to be placed, deals arranged, manifests compiled, and records kept, writing that was easy to learn, use, and understand was required.

A medium was necessary to carry this new form of communication.  The Sumerians had used clay tablets, but the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans eventually employed papyrus (rolls of sliced strips of reed pressed together).  Around 100 B.C. the Romans began using parchment (A writing material made from prepared animal skins), and in A.D. 105 a paper making process was perfected employing a mixture of pressed mulberry tree bark, water, rags, and a sophisticated frame for dying and stretching the resulting sheets of paper.  The paper making technology made its way to Europe some 600 years later.  With the coming of literacy, people could accumulate a body of knowledge and transmit that knowledge from one generation to another.  However in the newly literate cultures, writers could reach only those literate few that held their handwritten scrolls or letters.  The printing press would change this, making it possible to duplicate communication, thereby expanding our ability to communicate with one another.  Printing and the printing press existed long before Johannes Guttenberg perfected his process in or around 1446.

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It is impossible to overstate the importance of this development.  Guttenberg, however, was a poor businessman.  He stressed quality over quantity, in part because of his reverence for the book he was printing, the Bible.  He used the highest quality paper and ink and turned out far fewer volumes than he otherwise could have.   Other printers however, quickly saw the true economic potential of Guttenberg’s invention.  The first Guttenberg Bible appeared in 1456.  By the end of the century, 44 years later, printing operations existed in 12 European countries, and the continent was flooded with 20 million volumes of 7,000 titles in 35,000 editions.  Although Guttenberg developed his printing press with a limited use in mind, printing Bibles, the cultural effects of mass printing have been profound.

By the mid-18th Century the printing press had become one of the engines driving the Industrial revolution. Industrialization affects increased leisure time and expendable cash with the spread of literacy resulting in a large and growing audience for printed information and entertainment.  By the mid-19th century, a mass audience and the means to reach it existed.


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Publishing Opportunities

Opportunities are available for you in publishing!  You are experienced in advertising sales, and are an enthusiastic leader.  We are serving people through a new media company, and are now building our teams.  Become a part of our team, while owning your own business. Publish advertisements in a full color, glossy, printed edition magazine serving our community. Manage your own business of advertising coordination, and help people use media to their benefit.  Successful contractors earn the opportunity to play an active role in front of the audience, through the printed edition magazines, after three consecutive issues of reaching goals has been attained.

This is a contract opportunity, and the contractor must have resources and ability to perform contracted work. Experience creating and managing a book of advertising business at a media company is required. Must have testimonials and track record of success. Thank you for sharing success stories, your values, your 50-100 word biography (including your qualifications, and what you would like to accomplish by contributing), along with your cover letter and resume.

Media companies traditionally treat people like employees officially, when truly they are running their own business, through their own book of business. Bottom line comes down to return on investment for advertisers and service to the community. We enable maximum efficiency on all accounts. You deliver advertisements ready to be published, we publish them in an editorial magazine that helps people in our community.  Please review the contract agreement for respective publications, available for download at the bottom of this page. We look forward to hearing from interested candidates.

Advantages of Magazines

The benefits of magazine advertising include the ability to reach specialized audiences, audience receptivity, a long life span, and visual quality.

Target Audiences.  The ability of magazines such as Men’s Health, Fast Company, and Sassy to reach specialized audiences has become a primary advantage of magazines.  For example, a set of magazines published by the Hearst Corporation is called the Seven Sisters and is clearly targeted to contemporary American women.  These seven include Better Homes and Gardens, Ladies’ Home Journal, Family Circle, Redbook, Women’s Day, McCalls, and Good Housekeeping.

Audience receptivity.  Magazines have a high level of audience receptivity.  The editorial environment of a magazine lends authority and credibility to the advertising.  Many magazines claim that advertising in their publication gives a product prestige.  Clearly an ad in Fortune would impress business audiences, just as an ad in Spin would impress teenagers.

Long life span.  Magazines have the longest life span of all the media.  Some magazines, such as National Geographic and Consumer Reports are used as ongoing references and might never be discarded.  Other publications, such as TV Guide, are used frequently during a given period of time.  In addition, magazines have very high reach potential because of a large pass-along, or secondary, audience of family, friends, customers, and colleagues.

Format.  People also tend to read magazines at a slow rate, typically over a couple of days, so they offer an opportunity to use detailed copy.  The magazine format also allows more creative variety through multiple pages and other features.

Visual Quality.  The visual quality of magazines tends to be excellent because they are printed on high-quality paper that provides superior photo reproduction in both black and white and color. This production quality often reflects the superior editorial content.  Well-respected writers often write feature stories.

Why Advertise? Ten Reasons to Advertise

1. Advertising Creates Store Traffic

Continuous store traffic is the first step toward increasing sales and expanding your base of shoppers. The more people who come into the store, the more opportunities you have to make sales. A National Retail Federation survey found that for every 100 items shoppers plan to buy, they make 30 unanticipated purchases.

2. Advertising Attracts New Customers

Your market changes constantly. Newcomers to your area mean new customers to reach. People earn more money, which means changes in lifestyles and buying habits. The shopper who wouldn’t consider your business a few years ago may be a prime customer now.

3. Advertising Encourages Repeat Business

Shoppers don’t have the store loyalty they once did. Shoppers have mobility and freedom of choice.  You must advertise to keep pace with your competition. The National Retail Federation states:  “Mobility and non-loyalty are rampant. Stores must promote to get former customers to return and to seek new ones.”

4. Advertising Generates Continuous Business

Your doors are open. Employees are on the payroll. Even the slowest days produce sales. As long as you’re in business, you’ve got overhead to meet and new people to reach. Advertising can generate traffic now…and in the future.

5. Advertising is an Investment in Success

Advertising gives you a long-term advantage over competitors who cut back or cancel advertising. A survey of more than 3,000 companies found that advertisers who maintained or expanded advertising over a five-year period saw their sales increase an average of 100 percent, and companies that cut advertising grew at a less than half the rate of those who advertised steadily.

6. Advertising Keeps You in the Competitive Race

There are only so many customers in the market ready to buy at any one time. You have to advertise to keep regular customers and to counterbalance the advertising of your competition. You must advertise to keep or expand your market share or you will lose to more aggressive competitors.

7. Advertising Keeps Your Business Top-of-Mind With Shoppers

Many people postpone buying decisions. They often go from store to store comparing prices, quality and service. Advertising must reach them steadily through the entire decision-making process. Your name must be fresh in their minds when they decide to buy.

8. Advertising Gives Your Business a Successful Image

In a competitive market, rumors and bad news travel fast. Nothing sets the record straight faster than advertising; it tells your customers and competitors that your doors are open and you’re ready for business.

Vigorous and positive advertising can bring shoppers into the marketplace, regardless of the economy.

9. Advertising Maintains Morale

Positive advertising boosts morale. It gives your staff strong, additional support. When advertising or promotion is suddenly cut or cancelled, salespeople and employees may become alarmed or demoralized. They may start false rumors in the honest belief that your business is in trouble.

10. Advertising Brings in Big Bucks for Your Business

Advertising works. Businesses that succeed are usually strong, steady advertisers. Look around. You’ll find the most aggressive and consistent advertisers are almost invariably the most successful. Join their ranks by advertising and watch your business grow!

Cultural History of Magazines

Magazines were truly America’s first national mass medium, and like books they served as an important force in social change.  The mass circulation magazine grew with the nation. Between 1900 and 1945, the number of families who subscribed to one or more magazines grew from 200,000 to more than 32 million. New and important magazines continued to appear throughout the decades.

Magazine industry research indicates that among people with at least some college, 94% read at least one magazine and average more than 11 different issues a month.  Nearly the same figures apply for households with annual incomes of over $40,000 and for people in professional and managerial careers, regardless of educational attainment.  The typical magazine reader is at least high school graduate, is married, owns his or her own house, is employed full time, and has an annual household income of just under $40,000. Advertisers find magazine readers an attractive, upscale audience for their pitches

How people use magazines also makes them an attractive advertising medium.  People report: Reading magazines as much for the ads as for the editorial content, keeping them available for up to four months, passing them along to an average of four similar adults, and being very loyal, which translates into increased esteem for those advertisers in the pages of their favorite publications.  In 1950 there were 6,950 magazines in operation exceeding 22,000 in 2002, 12,000 of those being general interest consumer magazines.  Of these, 800 produce three-fourths of the industry’s gross revenues.  Ten new magazine titles are launched every week (Magazine Publishers of America, 2000).

Magazine specialization exists and succeeds because the demographically similar readership of these publications is attractive to advertisers who wish to target ads for their products and services to those most likely to respond to them.

Cultural History of Mass Communications

Oral or preliterate cultures are those without a written language, some existing thousands of years ago and some still functioning today. More than 5,000 years ago, alphabets were developed independently in several places around the world.  The initial complexity with picture based alphabets, requiring a huge number of symbols to convey even the simplest idea, meant that only a very select few, the intellectual elite, could read or write.  Culture slowly expanded, using symbols to represent sounds rather than objects or ideas around 1800 B.C. with the Sumerians.   The syllable alphabet slowly developed, and then flowered in Greece around 800 B.C.  For orders to be placed, deals arranged, manifests compiled, and records kept, writing that was easy to learn, use, and understand was required.

A medium was necessary to carry this new form of communication.  The Sumerians had used clay tablets, but the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans eventually employed papyrus (rolls of sliced strips of reed pressed together).  Around 100 B.C. the Romans began using parchment (A writing material made from prepared animal skins), and in A.D. 105 a paper making process was perfected employing a mixture of pressed mulberry tree bark, water, rags, and a sophisticated frame for dying and stretching the resulting sheets of paper.  The paper making technology made its way to Europe some 600 years later.  With the coming of literacy, people could accumulate a body of knowledge and transmit that knowledge from one generation to another.  However in the newly literate cultures, writers could reach only those literate few that held their handwritten scrolls or letters.  The printing press would change this, making it possible to duplicate communication, thereby expanding our ability to communicate with one another.  Printing and the printing press existed long before Johannes Guttenberg perfected his process in or around 1446.

It is impossible to overstate the importance of this development.  Guttenberg, however, was a poor businessman.  He stressed quality over quantity, in part because of his reverence for the book he was printing, the Bible.  He used the highest quality paper and ink and turned out far fewer volumes than he otherwise could have.   Other printers however, quickly saw the true economic potential of Guttenberg’s invention.  The first Guttenberg Bible appeared in 1456.  By the end of the century, 44 years later, printing operations existed in 12 European countries, and the continent was flooded with 20 million volumes of 7,000 titles in 35,000 editions.  Although Guttenberg developed his printing press with a limited use in mind, printing Bibles, the cultural effects of mass printing have been profound.

By the mid-18th Century the printing press had become one of the engines driving the Industrial revolution. Industrialization affects increased leisure time and expendable cash with the spread of literacy resulting in a large and growing audience for printed information and entertainment.  By the mid-19th century, a mass audience and the means to reach it existed.